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Evaluating Different Market Structures
*December 13, 2012*

*Posted by tomflesher in Micro, Teaching.*

Tags: consumer surplus, Cournot, equilibrium, intermediate microeconomics, Introduction to Microeconomics, market week, monopoly, perfect competition, perfectly competitive markets, profit, welfare

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Tags: consumer surplus, Cournot, equilibrium, intermediate microeconomics, Introduction to Microeconomics, market week, monopoly, perfect competition, perfectly competitive markets, profit, welfare

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Market structures, like perfect competition, monopoly, and Cournot competition have different implications for the consumer and the firm. Measuring the differences can be very informative, but first we have to understand how to do it.

Measuring the firm’s welfare is fairly simple. Most of the time we’re thinking about firms, what we’re thinking about will be their profit. A business’s **profit function** is always of the form

Profit = Total Revenue – Total Costs

**Total revenue** is the total money a firm takes in. In a simple one-good market, this is just the number of goods sold (the **quantity**) times the amount charged for each good (the **price**). **Marginal revenue** represents how much extra money will be taken in for producing another unit. **Total costs** need to take into account two pieces: the **fixed cost**, which represents things the firm cannot avoid paying in the short term (like rent and bills that are already due) and the **variable cost**, which is the cost of producing each unit. If a firm has a **constant variable cost** then the cost of producing the third item is the same as the cost of producing the 1000th; in other words, constant variable costs imply a **constant marginal cost** as well. If marginal cost is falling, then there’s efficiency in producing more goods; if it’s rising, then each unit is more expensive than the last. The marginal cost is the derivative of the variable cost, but it can also be figured out by looking at the change in cost from one unit to the next.

Measuring the consumer’s welfare is a bit more difficult. We need to take all of the goods sold and meausre how much more people were willing to pay than they actually did. To do that we’ll need a consumer **demand function**, which represents the marginal buyer’s willingness to pay (that is, what the price would have to be to get one more person to buy the good). Let’s say the market demand is governed by the function

Q^{D} = 250 – 2P

That is, at a price of $0, 250 people will line up to buy the good. At a price of $125, no one wants the good (Q^{D} = 0). In between, quantity demanded is positive. We’ll also need to know what price is actually charged. Let’s try it with a few different prices, but we’ll always use the following format^{1}:

Consumer Surplus = (1/2)*(p^{max} – p^{actual})*Q^{D}

where p^{max} is the price where 0 units would be sold and Q^{D} is the quantity demanded at the actual price. In our example, that’s 125.

Let’s say that we set a price of $125. Then, no goods are demanded, and anything times 0 is 0.

What about $120? At that price, the quantity demanded is (250 – 240) or 10; the price difference is (125 – 120) or 5; half of 5*10 is 25, so that’s the consumer surplus. That means that the people who bought those 10 units were willing to pay $25 more, in total, than they actually had to pay.^{2}

Finally, at a price of $50, 100 units are demanded; the total consumer surplus is (1/2)(75)(100) or 1875.

Whenever the number of firms goes up, the price decreases, and quantity increases. When quantity increases or when price decreases, all else equal, consumer surplus will go up; consequently, more firms in competition are better for the consumer.

**Note:
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^{1}Does this remind you of the formula for the area of a triangle? Yes. Yes it does.

^{2}If you add up each person’s willingness to pay and subtract 120 from each, you’ll underestimate this slightly. That’s because it ignores the slope between points, meaning that there’s a bit of in-between willingness to pay necessary to make the curve a bit smoother. Breaking this up into 100 buyers instead of 10 would lead to a closer approximation, and 1000 instead of 100 even closer. This is known mathematically as

**taking limits**.